Oil Spill Research Papers - marolwins.cf

 

oil spill research paper

Citation is one of the major requirements in research and other paper writing like essay, and term paper, it involves using formats like; APA, MLA, or Chicago style research paper for source referencing. Oil spill research paper discuss about the various oil drilling issues like the ongoing Deep water Horizon oil spill in Mexico, it promises to. marolwins.cf could give you a detailed analysis of the adverse effects of oil spills on life of all kinds in an oil spill research paper. You can be sure of it. Oil spills are also found on land. Railway or oil tanker accidents, are the leading cause of the pollution of land by oil. Research papers on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill may investigate what steps are being taken to create technologies that would allow oil companies to quickly stop the flow of crude oil from a damaged wellhead; The explosion that led to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill was preceded days earlier by reports of well control issues.


Oil Spills Research Paper - EssayEmpire


This sample Oil Spills Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.

Oil in myriad forms has been used for hundreds of purposes for at least six thousand years. Oil spills occur naturally and as a result of oil exploration, transportation, and processing. Several disasters have led to more stringent environmental standards, such oil spill research paper double-hulled ships.

The drilling-platform explosion and subsequent oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico in April has brought renewed global attention to the dangers of oil spills. Oil is a main source of energy. Because it is unevenly distributed in the world, it must be transported on the seas and in pipelines to distant lands. Although the major oil transport and transfer activities occur on the seas, ports, and rivers, oil spill research paper, they are not limited to these areas.

Accidental oil spill research paper can occur wherever oil is drilled, oil spill research paper, stored, handled, refined, transported, and transferred. These spills can be either massive and catastrophic or chronic. Few other environmental problems are as common or ubiquitous or have the potential for immediate oil spill research paper damage and long-range effects. Recent or dramatic oil spills include those involving the ships Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, and Sea Empress, and the massive intentional oil spills during the Gulf War.

As this encyclopedia goes to press, an oil spill resulting from the explosion of the British Petroleum drilling platform Deepwater Horizon is still flowing into the Gulf of Mexico from 64 kilometers 40 miles off the coast of Louisiana; it is considered to be the worst environmental disaster in U. Crude petroleum or oil is a liquid or semiliquid mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that contains sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, other elements, and metals.

The hydrocarbons are the decayed remains of small marine animals and plants that flourished in the shallow inland seas that once covered large areas of the continents. Over hundreds of thousands of years, the dead remains of these tiny organisms drifted to the sea bottom. Covered by mud, this organic matter changed into the complicated hydrocarbons we call petroleum.

For the past million years, incompletely decayed plant and animal remains were buried under thick layers of rock, oil spill research paper, often accumulating one layer at a time. Because petroleum, natural gas, and coal formed from organisms that lived millions of years ago, they are called fossil fuels.

Since the Paleozoic era from to million years agothis organic matter has been slowly moving to more porous and permeable rocks, such as sandstone and siltstones, where it was trapped. The oil accumulates because of the presence of impermeable rock lying over these reservoirs.

Some oil fields extend laterally in the rock over several kilometers and may be several hundred meters deep. Some oil enters the oceans through natural seeps, and these natural oil spills can have massive effects on the organisms living nearby. Some of the hydrocarbon products of petroleum include dissolved natural gas, gasoline, benzene, naphtha, kerosene, oil spill research paper, diesel fuel and light heating oils, heavy heating oils, and tars of various weights. Petroleum yields these products through elaborate refining processes.

They are then further refined and combined into other products such as solvents, paints, asphalt, plastics, synthetic rubber, oil spill research paper, fibers, soaps and cleansing agents, waxes and jellies, medicines, explosives, oil spill research paper, and fertilizers. Oil spills can occur during the refining process or during transport.

For over six thousand years people have used asphalt, pitch bitumenand liquid oil in numerous and ingenious ways. People living in river valleys of ancient Mesopotamia used local asphalt from hand-dug pits as building cement and caulking for boats. The legend of the flood described in the Book of Genesis records that the ark was well caulked.

The Elamites, Chaldeans, Akkadians, and Sumerians mined shallow deposits of oil-derived pitch or asphalt to export to Egypt to preserve the mummies of great kings and queens and to make mosaics to adorn their coffins. Ancient Egyptians used liquid oil as a purgative and wound dressing, oil spill research paper it aided the healing process and kept wounds clean. Archeological remains in Khuzestan, Iran, oil spill research paper that oil spill research paper was commonly used for bonding and jewel setting during the Sumerian epoch BCE.

Asphalt served as cement in the Tower of Babel and in the walls and columns of early Babylonian temples. As early as BCE the Babylonians set clay cones and tiny semiprecious stones in bitumen to form elaborate mosaics. Soon fossil fuels were recognized for their light-giving properties: according to the Greek biographer Plutarch, in about BCE Alexander the Great was impressed by the sight of a continuous flame issuing from the Earth in Kirkuk, Iraq, probably a natural gas seep set ablaze.

The Romans used oil lamps in the first century BCE. The Chinese first used oil as a fuel around CE, employing pulleys and hand labor to oil spill research paper the oil from the ground through pipes. Oil spills resulting from these uses were small and limited in scope.

Oil was quickly adopted for military purposes, especially naval skirmishes, which resulted in larger spills. Oil-filled trenches were set aflame to defend cities in ancient times. The Persians developed the first distilling processes to obtain flammable products for use in battle, catapulting arrows wrapped in oil-soaked cloths toward their Greek enemies during the siege of Athens in BCE.

The Byzantines used liquid fire against the Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries; thrown onto enemy ships from pots or tubes, liquid fire probably some combination of oil, naptha, and chemical substances such as sulfur and quicklimecaused extensive damage and terror.

The Saracens used Greek fire against St. Louis at the crusades, and the Knights of St. John used it against the invading Turks at Malta. The Mongols also burned petroleum products in their siege of Central Asia.

Bukhara in western Asia fell in because Chinggis Genghis Khan threw pots full of naphtha and fire at the gates of the castle, and it burst into flame. People were forced to flee the oil spill research paper or else die. During the Renaissance, the transport of oil developed, leading to more significant oil spills in the wake of trade.

Oil became a valued commodity to barter, trade, or steal. In the New World, oil spill research paper, the natives of Venezuela caulked boats and hand-woven baskets with asphalt, and liquid oil was used for medicine and lighting. Native North Americans used oil in magic, medicines, and paints. The first barrel of Venezuelan oil was exported to Spain in to alleviate the gout of Emperor Charles V. The modern era of oil transportation began in when a small-bore lead pipe was used to transport natural gas from a seep near Fredonia, New York, to nearby consumers, including the local hotel.

From this time on, the possibility of oil spills due directly to transport and transfer increased with the decades. The majority of known oil reserves are in the Middle East, followed by North America. The global distribution of oil deposits influences production and transport patterns and thereby determines the potential distribution of oil spills.

World oil production rose from million metric tons in to 2, oil spill research paper. Oil spills rise along with production. The primary method of transportation of oil is by oil tanker, and traditional shipping lanes have developed between the oil-producing countries and the oil-importing countries. Oil is also transported through pipes over vast distances to refineries.

Oil spills occur mainly along these oil spill research paper and land routes and along the shores where oil transfers take place. Small spills occur during the transfer of oil from tanker to tanker, from tanker to refinery, from damaged, underground pipes, oil spill research paper, and around oil refineries and storage facilities.

About 7. Large spills usually occur during tanker accidents. With the increase in the size of oil tankers, the potential for accidents has increased. The tankers of the s had a capacity of 3, metric tons, compared to 16, in, oil spill research paper, inandin Oil spill—susceptible single-hulled ships are due to be taken out of service worldwide byalthough it remains to be seen whether this will happen or not.

Although the large oil spills receive media attention, only about 4 percent of oil entering the oceans comes from tanker accidents. Another 25 percent enters from tanker operations, 14 percent from other transport accidents, and 34 percent from rivers and estuaries. About 11 percent of the oil entering the oil spill research paper comes from natural seeps.

Since there has been a steady increase in the number of small spills, whereas the number of large spills has remained relatively constant.

One to three spills of over 38 million liters happen each year. One or two catastrophic accidents in any given year can substantially increase the amount of oil spilled onto the land and into the oceans. The small spills of less thanliters apiece add up to about 38 million liters a year worldwide.

Even without major disasters, large quantities of oil spill into marine and inland habitats. The largest spill on record dumped million liters into the Persian Gulf in as Iraqi forces sabotaged hundreds of wells, oil terminals, oil spill research paper, and tankers when they withdrew from their position in Kuwait during the Gulf War, but most spills are smaller, oil spill research paper.

Other large spills have included the oil well Ixtoc-1 in Mexico million liters,Norwruz Field in Arabia million liters,Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan million liters,Castillo de Bellver off South Africa million liters,and the Amoco Cadiz off France million liters, All other spills were less than million liters each.

The Exxon Valdez spill of in Alaska was twenty-eighth on the list, with 41 million liters, oil spill research paper, although the spill was particularly devastating because of the fragile nature of the affected sub-Arctic ecosystem. Because the Gulf of Mexico oil spill research paper is not yet fully contained at this writing, nearly three months after the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform— and because the estimates of how much oil spilled per day varied so dramatically, oil spill research paper, depending on the source—determining its place in this world hierarchy is premature.

According to Kayvan Farzaneh, writing in the 30 April issue of Foreign Policy, the Gulf spill would clearly dwarf the Exxon Valdez disaster, however, based on average estimates of 5, barrels spilled a day for 90 days, or about 75 million liters.

Animals and plants and the nonliving parts of ecosystems are not equally vulnerable to oil spills. Oil spill research paper plants are fragile and have narrow habitat ranges, and they grow only in isolated sites. Some animals are very specialized, living in only a few places or eating only a few kinds of foods, oil spill research paper.

Such species are particularly vulnerable to even small oil spills. Plants and animals in Arctic environments are fragile because of the limited growing season, limited diversity, and slow decay of the oil itself. Other species are generalists, oil spill research paper, with wide tolerances for different environmental conditions, broad food requirements, and large geographical distributions. Such animals and plants are very adaptable and often can recover quickly from an oil spill, although the initial death toll may be high.

Still other animals, such as some birds, fish, and mammals, can move away from a spill if its spread is slow. Factors that determine whether an oil spill has devastating effects on plants and animals include size of the spill, type of oil, time of the spill particularly in relation to the lifecycle of the organismsvulnerability of particular plants and animals, and the vulnerability of particular ecosystems.

Location of a spill can determine effects, oil spill research paper. In spills in intertidal marshes or estuaries where there is little tidal flow, there is a reduced opportunity for the oil to be carried out to sea, where dilution can blunt the effects, oil spill research paper.

Oil often concentrates at the edge of marshes where there is also a high concentration of invertebrates, young fish, and foraging birds. Many invertebrates do not have the ability to move or move only very short distances, making them particularly vulnerable to oil.

The timing of a spill is critical. A spill that occurs during the migratory season of birds, fish, or oil spill research paper may result in unusually high exposure of vast numbers of animals.

 

Free oil spill Essays and Papers

 

oil spill research paper

 

Research papers on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill may investigate what steps are being taken to create technologies that would allow oil companies to quickly stop the flow of crude oil from a damaged wellhead; The explosion that led to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill was preceded days earlier by reports of well control issues. GuLF STUDY, and began research on the health of the workers and volunteers most directly involved in responding to the oil spill crisis. The GuLF STUDY will help determine if oil spills, and exposure to crude oil and dispersants, affect physical and mental health. Researchers are studying a range of problems, including breathing and blood. Oil Spill Research Strategy 1) Introduction The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Oil Spill Research Program has been in existence since , following the Exxon Valdez oil spill and enactment of the Oil Pollution Act of (OPA). The OPA authorizes the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to conduct oil spill research.